The last chapter of CQE Primer is about Statistical Inference. The phrase indicates that when u r studying a population, u take a sample and calculate sample statistics, like mean, standard deviation, range, median, etc and derive a logical conclusion using those statistics and certain distributions. It's an interesting section but it's hard if not enough attention get paid.
Reminder: I haven't forgotten to write about Lean Manufacturing. I'm just goin' to read about it and then write.